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  • Close reading of the words is required both out of and in context, since words have primary meaning, figurative meaning, technical meaning, etc.

  • To ensure high quality and accurate translation, it is necessary to analyse both the source text and the components of its basic unit (the sentence).

  • Although the sentence is the basic unit of translation, correct selection of words is the key to good translation.

  • During the translation process it is necessary to pay due attention to false friends and cognates. Sometimes a target language word may look the same or nearly the same as the source language word, although the meaning is different, e.g. actual-actuel, adequate-adéquat, assiter à-assist at, capacité-capacity, etc.

  • To ensure the naturalness of translation it is necessary to have a feel and excellent knowledge of the target language, as well as disengage oneself from the source language text, by reading the translation as though no original existed.
  • When translating, one should not detach from the meaning of a given word and in search of a better synonym make "cosmic flights", thus deviating from the designated meaning of the word.
  • Although translators are the author of the target text, they should bear in mind that the target text should be completely in line with the source text where the thoughts of the source text author are embodied.
  • It is highly important to ensure that the source text author and the translator have a similiar understanding of the material presented in the text, the translation is acceptable and relevant for the target audience, the target text style matches the source text style.
  • When translating cultural words that are difficult to understand if you are not familiar with the given culture, it is often recommended to add a descriptive term.
  • If a translator finds that the given word is translated for the first time, inverted commas should be used.
  • If a translator finds that the given word is translated for the first time, inverted commas should be used.
  • A translator should not, upon personal discretion, invent new terms. Computer terms are either translated with an established term, or, in case there is no such, transferred, adding a functional or descriptive term.
  • There are words that cannot be translated at all, e.g. Wrangler, Adidas, Tandoori, Levi's, sari, raga, Jermuk, etc. These words should be transferred (transliterated), and if necessary be accompanied with a brief functional or descriptive term.
  • During the translation process, one of the most serious challenges is the translation of metaphor. When translating metaphors, it is necessary to pay attention to the level of naturalness, to reproduce the same image in the target language or use an equivalent metaphor, provided it has comparable frequency and currency in the source language. It is also important to pay due attention to the cultural setting (e.g. "pomegranate" for Armenians is a fertility symbol, whereas for a number of nations it symbolises poverty).
  • Metaphors containing the core of a writer’s message, life-style or perception of a particular situation are translated literally.
  • If a sentence is grammatically correct, but it does not appear to make sense, it is necessary to test its apparently nonsensical element for a possible metaphorical meaning, matching its primary meaning against its linguistic, situational and cultural contexts.
  • A translator should not use translations of cliché metaphors (e.g. use up every ounce of energy, not in a month of Sunday) in informative texts, public notices, instructions, propaganda and other similar texts, where it is utmost important to reproduce the exact message to the target audience. Sometimes a cultural equivalent of a cliché metaphor may have a stronger emotional impact than a functional (culture-free) equivalent. In this case, metaphors must be reduced to sense reproduced in the relevant style.

          Revisers and proofreaders
  • Revisers and proofreaders must have an excellent knowledge of the punctuation and grammar of the target language.
  • Reading out loud helps to spot better the existing mistakes both in terms of faulty sentence construction and miscommunication of the message.
  • It is necessary to spot not only typos, but inconsistencies in style and formatting as well.
  • Revisers and proofreaders must follow a special reading technique: concentrate on reading one word at a time. According to a research at Cambridge University, it dseno't mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are, the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit a pboerlm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.
  • Before proofing your own work, it is necessary to leave a decent period of time between finishing the text and proofreading it: read the text with a fresh approach.
  • It is highly recommended to do a final revision and proofreading on the hard copy.
  • The best way is to get someone else to do a final revision in order to ensure a "fresh approach".
  • When revising and proofreading, avoid distractions.
  • Taking short breaks away from the job allow ensuring maximum concentration.
  • Although it may sound funny, a ruler may serve as a useful tool during the proofreading process.

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